Hair analysis



Contents

  • 1 hair analysis
  • 2 The scientific principle of hair analysis
  • 3 How to do hair analysis
  • 4 uses of hair analysis
    • 4.1 Examination of minerals, drugs and toxins
    • 4.2 Forensic DNA examination
    • 4.3 Healthy body evaluation and diagnosis of diseases
  • 5 References

Hair analysis

The hair is distinguished by its simple structure, which consists of keratin , which is a type of strong and strong protein in the body. The living cells are found in the hair bulb, which is the base of the hair , and its cells are fed by the blood vessels that transport food and hormones. Which affects the growth of hair during different stages of life. The cells grow in the hair follicle to give the hair shaft (English: Hair follicle) fixed to the hair follicle until it leaves the skin. And the hair passesDuring her life in three phases, the hair growth phase (in English: Anagen phase), which lasts for several years, then developed the regression phase (English: Catagen phase) where the hair growth becomes slow during these weeks, then the final phase (English: Telogen phase) where the hair growth stops It is separated from the follicle and falls out to allow a new hair to begin its life. [1]

Hair analysis is defined as the scientific examination that is carried out on the hair sample, whether those found in crime scenes or those that were taken from the head for the purpose of health studies, [2] and also through the analysis of poetry, the identification of relatives, and verification of Cases of metal poisoning. Hair analysis also gives an idea of ​​the changes taking place in the body, such as exposure to certain chemicals or the use of a type of drug during the past few months, while it does not give information about the recent changes that occurred during the past days due to the slow growth of the hair. [3]

The scientific principle of hair analysis

The hair can maintain a long-term record of the drugs, drugs, and minerals that the body has been exposed to during the estimated life of the hair for five to six years, as the analysis depends on examining the hair itself, the fatty materials surrounding it, and the deoxyribonucleic acid (Deoxyribonucleic Acid). . The analysis is based on a simple principle, which is that the hair during its life and growth within the hair follicle absorbed many of the substances present in the bloodstream, and this process continued and the hair began to grow, grow, and record what the blood contained throughout its life, and these substances are also found in the fat layer surrounding the hair that was It is secreted from the sebaceous glands (Sebaceous gland). [2]

How to do hair analysis

There is a set of laboratory instructions for preparing the hair sample for examination, and in general the hair must be clean and free of hair care products, then the sample is taken from an area close to the skin where this area of ​​hair is newly developed to give modern information about the body, and usually is taken The sample is from the bottom of the scalp or from the pubic area (in English: Pubic area), then the sample is sent to the laboratory for treatment with specific chemicals and then checked. [3]

The following is a simplified explanation of the hair analysis techniques used: [2]
  • Trichogram technique: This technique is based on the principle of physical examination with the naked eye (in English: macroscopic), and using a microscopic hair and scalp. This technique is currently used to find out the life phase of the hair and determine the cause of hair loss.
  • Chromatography gas technique / mass spectrometry: (English: Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry) in which the chemical examination is the hair to see the DNA components, minerals, medicines, drugs, toxins , heavy metals found in the hair even though in small quantities and simple.

Hair analysis uses

Here are some possible uses for hair analysis:

Examination of minerals, drugs and toxins

Analysis can be used hair to examine the poisoning of heavy , such as lead in minerals ( in English: Lead), and mercury ( in English: Mercury), and arsenic ( in English: Arsenic), and is a hair analysis is the medical examination typical of chronic arsenic poisoning ( in English: Chronic arsenic poisoning), which results in Often the farmers inhale the insecticide spray. Hair analysis can also be used to confirm the presence of narcotic substances(English: Illegal drugs) such as cocaine (English: Cocaine), marijuana (English: Marijuana), alcohol, or amphetamines, or one of their metabolites (English: Metabolites). It is worth noting that the results of this examination need three Weeks to appear, and its results have long been approved in the courts if the need arises. [2] [3]

Despite the benefits of hair analysis, there are some factors that limit and restrict its use, including: [2] [3]
  • External factors, such as where you live or work, may cause False positive to appear, as happens when a person is near someone else who smokes hashish or marijuana.
  • The absence of a standard method of examination, which leads to the appearance of different results between laboratories, and even in the same laboratory, different results may appear when analyzing more than one hair from the same sample, which makes it necessary to verify the result through a blood test or urine examination .
  • Not knowing the relationship between the amount of drugs or alcohol consumed with the amount that will appear in the hair.
  • Using some types of medicine, such as birth control pills, that can alter the concentration of minerals in the hair.
  • Exposure to hair preparations, such as shampoo, drawing color, and hair dyes, can reduce the level of some minerals and may precipitate other minerals.
  • Other factors such as age, gender, hair color, race, hair growth rate, and the location from which the sample was taken, can all affect the concentration of elements in the hair.

Forensic DNA examination

To do this examination, the hair must be plucked or pulled from its place rather than clipped and this may hurt somewhat, [3] in order to preserve the hair root for use in the analysis of the hair's DNA, as DNA fingerprinting is used as conclusive evidence for crimes, as it is used in forensic medicine To confirm whether a person has been addicted to drinking alcohol or drugs during the past month or past months, depending on the length of the hair examined. [2]

Health assessment and diagnosis of diseases

Although some research indicates that hair can be analyzed to know the level of the hormone cortisol, some studies have also indicated that there may be a correlation between its height and heart disease (diabetes), diabetes, and stroke (English: Diabetes). : Stroke), and other diseases, [4] However, hair analysis for this purpose is unreliable and often sparked controversy, and it is worth noting that most insurance companies do not pay for this type of hair analysis, and the claim of some laboratories, medical sites, and places of care is considered The ability of hair to analyze Disease diagnostics, assessment of the nutritional and health status of the human being, and determine the need and lack of body of minerals and elements void the claim can be trusted not done. [2] [5]

Reasons for lack of confidence in hair analysis for diagnosing diseases:
In addition to the obstacles mentioned previously, some of these reasons are: [2] [5]
  • The American Medical Association indicated that the body's internal state of health is not related to the chemical and physical state of hair .
  • This examination is likely to involve errors, as laboratories do not verify the approval of the technologies used by them for the approved standard reference.
  • The natural values ​​of the minerals in the hair have not yet been determined.
  • The difficulty of using hair analysis to diagnose the pathological condition, because of the slow growth of hair where it grows at a rate of 1 cm per month, and accordingly even the closest hair to the scalp will be several weeks old, and thus it does not reflect the health status at this moment.

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