Thalassemia treatment



Contents

  • 1 thalassemia
  • 2 treatment for thalassemia
    • 2.1 Medical treatment
    • 2.2 Changing lifestyle
  • 3 symptoms of thalassemia
  • 4 Diagnosis of thalassemia
  • 5 References

Thalassemia

Approximately one hundred thousand newborn babies annually are transferred to hospitals as a result of acute thalassemia , where thalassemia is a common genetic blood disease among individuals of African descent, or from South Asian countries, or the Mediterranean, and this disease is accompanied. With the loss of the body's ability to produce sufficient amount of hemoglobin, either beta or alpha, that would cause a decrease in the production of red blood cells properly from the bone marrow , as red blood cells are subjected to great destruction, [1] [ 2] suffers a Suffering from anemia; a condition associated with the body losing its ability to produce sufficient amounts of blood cellsNatural red, in fact, there are two main types of thalassemia, one of which is called, beta thalassemia; which is associated with the occurrence of a disorder or a mutation in the beta globin genes, and the other type is alpha thalassemia ; which occurs in the case of the influence of alpha globin genes, In addition to the presence of a number of other types that fall under these two types, accordingly, it can be said that the type of thalassemia that a person suffers from, affects the type of severity of symptoms that appear on him. [3]

Thalassemia treatment

The medical treatment

There are a number of treatment options that can be used in case of thalassemia, the choice of which depends on the severity of the condition the patient suffers from, as some of them can be mentioned as follows: [2]
  • Blood transfusion: (English: Blood transfusions); the blood transfusion for patients with thalassemia every three to four weeks, in an attempt to reduce the number of cells of blood red , which is manufactured from bone marrow, where they are resorting to blood transfusion in severe cases of thalassemia disease, which is associated With the emergence of several different complications.
  • Drug therapy: An example of a medication that is used in some cases of thalassemia is hydroxyurea, which increases fetal hemoglobin production in the body.
  • Stem cell culture, or bone marrow transplant: A bone marrow transplant from a compatible donor may be an effective process in severe cases of thalassemia. The task of the bone marrow is to produce red, white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin . [1]
  • Surgical treatment: which may be necessary in cases of correcting bone deformities. [1]
  • Balastkhalab therapy: (English: Chelation therapy); where drugs are used to contribute to get rid of excess iron in the body, resulting from blood transfusions regularly, and examples of these drugs can be stated as follows: [4]
    • Deferiprone; this medicine is taken in liquid or tablet form, three times daily.
    • Desferrioxamine: On the other hand, this drug is pumped through the patient's skin in an infusion method.
    • Deferasirox; the patient takes one dose of this medicine daily by dissolving a tablet of it in a liquid.
  • Treating other health problems that may occur as a result of thalassemia: For example, what follows: [4]
    • Antibiotics and vaccines that are used to treat and prevent infection.
    • Bisphosphonates can be used to strengthen bones .
    • Hormone medications that are used in delayed puberty in children, and to treat low levels of hormones in the body.
    • Undergoing gallbladder surgery in some cases of gallstones.
    • Hypothyroid hormones are used in cases where the person suffers from hypothyroidism (English: Hypothyroidism).

Lifestyle changes

In addition to the appropriate treatment plan that helps control thalassemia , there are a number of behaviors that the patient is advised to follow, including the following: [5] [6]
  • Take care to eat healthy and balanced food, which contains sufficient quantities of nutrients necessary for the health of the body, in addition to the importance of eating foods that contain adequate amounts of vitamin D and calcium, which is necessary to maintain bone health.
  • Avoid taking vitamins, or other iron supplements, without taking your doctor's recommendations.
  • Ensure that the hands are washed well and regularly, with the importance of avoiding contact with sick people, in order to prevent infection from catching, especially in the case of undergoing splenectomy.
  • Refer to the doctor immediately after feeling sick, or having a fever.

Thalassemia symptoms

Thalassemia patients show a range of different symptoms, some of which can be summarized as follows: [3] [4]
  • Delayed growth and physical development.
  • Suffering from bone deformities, especially in the facial bones.
  • Suffering from extreme fatigue and exhaustion.
  • Dark urine coming out.
  • Pale skin tone or yellowing.
  • The incidence of osteoporosis .
  • Suffering from heart problems.
  • Having poor appetite.
  • Enlarged spleen, the organ responsible for fighting disease.

Thalassemia diagnosis

There are a number of methods that a doctor may use to diagnose thalassemia, some of which can be mentioned as follows: [7]
  • Physical examination, through which the spleen can be observed.
  • Complete blood count, which enables the doctor to detect anemia .
  • Take a mutation analysis test; this test helps detect alpha-thalassemia.
  • A blood sample is examined by a microscope, where disturbances in the shape and size of red blood cells are observed.
  • Hemoglobin electrophoresis. This test can detect the presence of abnormal forms of hemoglobin in the blood.
  • Prenatal testing: Through this examination, it is possible to confirm that the fetus has thalassemia, its severity, and the methods used in the prenatal test: (1)
    • Amniocentesis amniotic fluid ( in English: Amniocentesis); usually this test during the week 11 of pregnancy, by taking a small sample of liquid Caminos and examined.
    • Chorionic villus sampling: This test is usually performed in the 11th week of pregnancy, in which the doctor takes a sample of the placenta for examination.

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